In the earlier article on ovarian cancer, we discussed any kind of healthy ovary’s cell, due to the false mechanism, can transform into an unhealthy cell. Furthermore, the process might result in the formation of a tumour. These tumours may or may not be cancerous. However, the treatment plan for each is different but diagnosis usually starts from detecting signs of any kind of tumour. For the record, non-cancerous tumours are more common than cancerous.
In the earlier article, we looked at symptoms which were so common thus misleading. Therefore no one should diagnose any disease or disorder by giving preference only to symptoms. They are just the indicator that something is going out of the way. The first step of diagnosis always starts from looking at these indicators and the rest is the work of experts and medical tests.
Few useful tests are:
Generally known as the pelvic exam or vaginal exam. This examination is basically done to look for possible signs of cancer. Doctors insert lubricated, gloved finger into vagina and rectum to feel abnormal areas.
A blood test is specifically to check the level of CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in the blood. An elevated amount of CA 125 in the blood can cause both types of tumours i.e. cancerous and noncancerous.
Doctors do vaginal ultrasonography to create sonogram of a vagina which helps in the study of tissues. The reason it is also called transvaginal ultrasonography because it can also help in the study of tissues beyond the vaginal wall.
Other than above a bunch of another techniques and tests are available to diagnose ovarian cancer. Such as CT scan, positron emission tomography, biopsy. Most tests are to determine the presence of any lump and to look at any possibility of being it cancerous.
Not only ovarian cancer but the treatment of any type of cancer depends on several factors. It does not only include a doctor or single expert but a whole well-experienced team is needed. Factor that effects any treatment plan:
- Stage of cancer.
- Cancer is new or reoccurring.
- Health history.
- Location, type, and size of the tumour.
However, common treatment plans are chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy.
It is main treatment in most cases. Basically, type of surgery depends on the stage of cancer and on a fact that how much it has affected nearby organs. If the cancer is at an early stage a surgeon, who is usually a specialised gynecologic oncology, will only remove a single ovary. However, if the cancer is at advanced stage removal of both the ovaries, uterus and such organs will become necessary. Even after the removal of cancerous cells, there is a fair chance of spreading it at micro level thus more surgery may also happen to make sure the proper removal of cancerous cells.
Although in most case it comes after surgery but in few cases, it comes before surgery. Chemo is mostly useful when cancer go through metastasis (spread). It is hard enough to scan the whole body for the presence of any cancerous sign including at micro level. Therefore, experts give a combination of drugs to patients, which through the bloodstream reach all the body parts, to treat cancer.
It can not be listed as common or important treatment plan because it shows a lot of side effects. However, in some cases, experts still use this therapy to treat metastasized cancer. They use high energy particles, usually X-rays, to destroy cancerous cells.